Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russian Federation  
The Federal Subsoil Resources Management Agency  
«Rusgeology» JSC

Sonar survey and seismoacoustic profiling

    For conducting sonar survey and seismo-acoustic profiling of the bottom of the water areas the JSV "PMGE" uses the multi-purpose deep-sea geoacoustic complex MAK-1M.

    The composition of the complex MAK-1M:

•   Two side-scan sonars  long-range and high-resolution
•   Acoustic high-resolution profiler
•   Electroprospecting streamer 70 meters long for measuring the natural field by four sensors
•   Echo sounder
•   Pressure meter
•   Redox Oxidation Reduction Sensor, manufactured by ATM, Germany.

    Application of the MAK-1M complex:

•     Detailed geological survey and engineering work at a depth of 6,000 meters
•     Search for solid minerals
•     Geoenvironmental monitoring of the bottom of the water areas
•     Underwater structure state monitoring
•     Search for sunken objects.


The main technical characteristics of the MAK-1M




Maximum immersion depth, m

6 000


Maximum towing speed, knots



Sidescan sonar HF:


Operating frequency, kHz 120
Range of view (on each side), m 50 - 500


Sidescan sonar LF:


Operating frequency of the channel, kHz 33,4
Range of view (on each side), m 50 - 1500


Echosounder (EN):


Operating frequency, кHz 170
Range, m 5-200


Acoustic profilograph (AP):


Operating frequency, кHz 4
The beamwidth of the directivity pattern is -3 dB, deg 25 cones


Pressure sensor, accuracy,% full depth



Position sensors:


Course, accuracy, degree 0,2
Roll, trim difference, accuracy, degree 0,2


The underwater vehicle:


Weight on air, kg, not more than 500
Overall dimensions, mm, not more than 2600х910х1150

    The MAK-1M complex includes:

 • The on-board unit (a computer based on the Intel i5 processor, a set of hardware signal-converter boards, an external power supply)
 • The equipment vehicle(EV) of neutral buoyancy
•  Passive depth controller
•  Echo sounder

    Both vehicles (Fig. 1) are towed on a coaxial cable-rope KGP-1-190 PO-19.0 or similar, with a total length of 7,000 meters. Up&down operations are carried out with the help of a transit winch through the stern launch and recovery system with an average speed of 10-80 meters per minute. The length of the etched cable rope, depending on the depths studied (depths from 2,000 m to 4,800 m) and towing speed (1 knot) is 2,500-3500 meters. The equipment is towed at a height of 70 meters above the bottom (Fig. 2).


    The information from both sides of the sonar and bottom profiler is visualized on two monitors - of a watch operator and of a trawlmaster. Further processing of the obtained data makes it possible to deduce the echograms of the bottom profilograph reduced to the true bottom relief, and sonograms of the side scan sonar without geometric distortions (Fig. 3, Fig. 4).


(Fig.4) Mosaic MAK, 100 kHz

    For a regular binding, a beacon is installed on the device, which works with the underwater navigation system HiPAP 101 from the manufacturer Kongsberg Maritime, Os (Norway).

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